The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) will be the new, most sophisticated accelerator facility for studying properties of nuclear matter at high intensity and resolving power. Nearly two decades in the planning, the EIC is now the highest priority project for new construction in the US Nuclear Physics Long Range Plan of 2015. It is enthusiastically endorsed by the US National Academy of Sciences in 2018. The EIC will address fundamental open questions on nucleon and nuclear structure, the origin of mass and nucleon spin, and the emergent properties of a dense system of gluons in nuclear matter.
To further sharpen and broaden the physics case and to evaluate experimental requirements for the detector design capable of delivering the EIC physics goal, the EIC Users Group has organized the Yellow Report Initiative. This intensive year-long study of planned physics measurements and required and available detector technologies resulted in the most comprehensive report, providing the basis for further development of experimental setup best suited for science needs.
In this talk, I will summarize the established EIC design capabilities and physics goals and then focus on recent progress in developments of physics measurement, corresponding experimental equipment requirements, and emerging detector concepts on the path for the realization of the EIC.