We perform the first simultaneous global QCD extraction of the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions and the TMD fragmentation functions in nuclei. We have considered the world set of data from semi-inclusive electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan di-lepton production. In total, this data set consists of 126 data points from HERMES, Fermilab, RHIC and LHC. Working at next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, we achieve a $\chi^2/dof = 1.045$. In this analysis, we quantify the broadening of TMDs in nuclei comparing with those in free nucleons for the first time. We also make predictions for the ongoing JLab 12 GeV program and future EIC measurements.